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动词have在中学英语中的用法  

2008-04-21 11:08:55|  分类: 6.英语论文集 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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作者:石玉兰

一、have作实意动词。
    1.表示“有”的意思。
    Look,I have wings,just like you.(JBⅤL1)
    He had fair hair and blue eyes.(JBⅥL2)
    〔注1〕:其否定和疑问形式变化,在美国通常用助动词do。
    〔注2〕:在英国口语中常用have got代替have.
    Look,can't you see I've got teeth,too,(JBⅤL1)
    I haven't got any jewelry.(SBⅠL5)
    2.have和一些其他名词连用,表示:
    (1)一种活动。
    We have no classes on Sunday.(上课)(JBⅡL11)
    They're going to have a volleyball match.(举行比赛)(JBⅢL11)
    Are we going to have a meeting this week?(开会)(JBⅢL11)
    We are going to have a talk this afternoon.(听报告)(JBⅢL11)
    (2)患病。
    I have got a headache.(JBⅣL8)
    I have a bad cold.(JBⅤL3)
    (3)发生的情况。
    I've had so many falls that I'm black and blue all over.(跌跤)(JBⅣL10)
    (4)生育。
    The queen ant may have tens of thousands of babies in onesummer.(SBⅠL14)
    3.和一与动词同形的名词连用,表示一个动作(have+a+由动词转化和名词)。
    Are you going to have a swim.(JBⅢL1)
    I have a long talk with the teacher.(JBⅣL10)
    4.have on sth或have sth on,表示“穿着”、“戴着”(=to bewearing)。
    I noticed he had on bedroom slippers.(SBⅡL6)
    At the ball Mathilde had a diamond necklace on.
    5.表示“吃”、“喝”。
    I wanted to have a cup of tea and some eggs.(JBⅢL10)
    Does she have lunch at home?(JBⅡL11)
    6.组成复合结构即“have+宾语+宾语补足语”。
    (1)不加to的动词不定式作宾语补足语(have sb do sth),表示让、叫某人做某事。
    The soldier had him stand with his back to his father.(SBⅠL17)
    〔注〕:否定结构表示“不能让…”或“从未有人…”.
    We won't have you blame it on others.
    She had never had anybody speak to her that way before.
    (2)现在分词作宾语补足语(have sb(sth)doing),表示让(使)某人做某事。
    …the two men had their lights burning all night long….
    (3)过去分词作宾语补足语(have sb (sth)done),表示:
    ①使(让,请)别人作某事,表示的动作是别人做的。
    Emperor Qin Shi Huang had all the walls joined up.(SBⅠL10)
    …he should have new clothes made of this splendid clothfor the coming great procession.(SBⅠ L8)
    ②遭遇到某事。
    Houses near airports sometimes have their windows broken.(SBⅠL12)
    Workers in some industries have their hearing harmed by the noise of the machine.(SBⅠL12)
    二、have与to一起构成情态动词,表示“不得不”、“必
    须”,可用于各种时态。
    I have to look after her at home.(JBⅢL4)
    三、have做助动词与动词的过去分词一起构成现在完成时
    和过去完成时。
    Great changes have taken place the last two years.(JBⅥL3)
    They said that the Arab had stolen their camel.(JBⅤL4)
    四、have用于“情态动词+have+过去分词”的结构,有
    推测、假设之意。
    1.must+have+过去分词,表示对过去时间发生的动作或存在的情况的推测,一般用于肯定句。
    Her father thought that she must have met a fairy.(SBⅠL10)
    You must have left your bag in the theatre.
    2.can(could)+have+过去分词,表示对过去发生事情的“不肯定”,常用于否定句和疑问句。
    He can't have been to your home,he doesn't know youraddress.
    3.should+have+过去分词,表示“某事本该早做而实际未做”,用于肯定句。
    You should have been here five minutes ago.(SBⅡL10)
    五、have用于某些成语,表示固定的意思。
    1.have a word(a few words)with sb,表示和某人说一(几)句话。
    Where's Peter?I want to have a word with him.(SBⅢL13)
    2.had better+不带to的动词不定式,表示“…最好…”。
    I'd better go and look for him now.(JBⅢL2)
    3.have nothing(something)to do with,表示“和…无(有)”关系。
    Most of questions had nothing to do with Edison's lessons.(JBⅤL9)

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